Glossary

Allard, Francis, and Diimaajav Erdenebaatar. 2005.

Khirigsuurs, ritual and mobility in the Bronze Age of Mongolia, Antiquity 79: 1–18.


Alekseev, A. Yu., N. A. Bokovenko, Yu. Boltrik, K. A. Chugunov, G. Cook, V. A. Dergachev, N. Kovalyukh, G. Possnert, J. van der Plicht, E. M. Scott, A.

Sementsov, V. Skripkin, S. Vasiliev, and G. Zaitseva. 2001.
A Chronology of the Scythian Antiquities of Eurasia Based on New Archaeological and 14C Data, Radiocarbon, 43 (2B): 1085–1107.


Assev, I. V. 1985.

K voprosu o datirovke mogil tipa chetyrekhugol’nykh ogradok (Regarding the dating of four cornered mounds). In Drevnie kul’tury Mongolii
(Ancient cultures of Mongolia), edited by R. S. Vasil’evskii, 34–40. Novosibirsk: Nauka.


Bayar, D., and D. Erdenebaatar. 1999.

Mongol Altain khun chuluun khoshoo (Stone figures of the Mongolian Altai). Ulaanbaatar: Mongol uls Shinzhlek Ukhaany Akademi Tuukhiin Khureelen.


Dashniam L., A. Ochir, N. Urtnasan, and D. Tseveendorj. 1999.

Mongol nutag dakh’ tuukh soëlyn durslal (Monuments of Mongolian history and culture). Ulaanbaatar: Mongolian Academy of Sciences.


Derevianko, A. P., and V. I. Molodin. 2000.

Fenomen Altaiskikh mumii (Phenomenon of the mummies of the Altai). Novosibirsk: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography.


Dorofeyuk, N. I., and P. E. Tarasov. 1998.

Vegetation and Lake Levels in Northern Mongolia in the Last 12 500 years as Indicated by Data of Pollen and Diatom Analyses.
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 6 (1): 70–83.


Evtiukhova, L. A. 1952.

Kamennye izvaianiia iuzhnoi Sibiri i Mongolii, Materialy I issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR 24: 72–120.


Görsdorf Jochen, Hermann Parzinger, and Anatolii Nagler. 2001.

New Radiocarbon Dates of the North Asian Steppe Zone and its Consequences for the Chronology. Radiocarbon 43 (2B): 1115–1120.


Golden, Peter B. 1990.

The peoples of the south Russian steppes. In The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, edited by Denis Sinor, 256–284.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Grach, A. D. 1961.

Drevnetiurkskie izvaianiia Tuvy (Ancient Turkic images of Tuva). Moscow: Eastern Literature.


Griaznov, M. P. 1980.

Arzhan: tsarskii kurgan ranneskifskogo vremeni (Arzhan: a royal burial of the early Scythian period). Leningrad: Nauka.


Gunin, Peter D., Elizabeth A. Vostokova, Nadezhda I. Dorofeyuk, Pavel E. Tarasev, and Clanton C. Black. 1999.

Vegetation Dynamics of Mongolia. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


E. Jacobson, V. D. Kubarev, and D. Tseevendorj [Tseveendorj]. 2001.

Mongolie du Nord-Ouest: Tsagaan Salaa/Baga Oigor. Répertoire des Pétroglyphes d’Asie centrale, Fascicule No. 6. 2 vols. Paris: De Boccard.


Jacobson-Tepfer, E. 2001.

Cultural Riddles: Stylized Deer and Deer Stones of the Mongolian Altai. Bulletin of the Asia Institute 15: 31–56.


E. Jacobson, V. D. Kubarev, and D. Tseveendorj. 2006.

Mongolie du Nord–ouest–Haut Tsagaan Gol. Répertoire des Pétroglyphes d’Asie centrale, Fascicule No. 7. 2 vols. Paris: De Boccard.


E. Jacobson, V. D. Kubarev, and D. Tseveendorj. 2006.

A New Petroglyphic Complex in Bayan Ölgiy Aimag, Mongolia. International Newsletter on Rock Art 45: 23–27.


E. Jacobson, V. D. Kubarev, and D. Tseveendorj. 2006.

The Rock Art of Mongolia. The Silk Road 4 (1): 5–12.


Kortum, R., Zagd Batsaikhan, Edelkhan, and J. Gambrell. 2005.

Another Petroglyph Complex in the Altai Mountains, Bayan Olgii Aimag, Mongolia: Biluut 1, 2, and 3. International Newsletter on Rock Art 41: 7–14.


Khudiakov, IU. C. 1987.

Khereksury i olennye kamni (Khirigsuur and deer stones). In Arkheologiia, etnografiia i antropologiia Mongolii (Archaeology, ethnography,
and anthropology of Mongolia), edited by A. P. Derevianko and Sh. Natsagdorj, 136–162. Novosibirsk: Nauka.


Kubarev, V. D. 1979.

Drevnie izvaianiia Altaia. Olennye kamni (Ancient deer stones of the Altai). Novosibirsk: Nauka.


Kubarev, V. D., and D. Tseveendorj. 2002.

Ancient Turkic Memorials in the Altai. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 1 (9): 76–95.


Mackerras, Colin. 1990.

The Uighurs. In The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, edited by Denis Sinor, 317–342. Cambridge University Press.


Mikhailov, N. N. 2002.

Pozdnepleistotsenovoe oledenenie severo-zapada mongol’skogo Altaia (Late Pleistocene glaciation of northwestern Mongolian Altai).
Izvestiia Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva (Reports of the Russian Archaeological Society) 134 (6): 34–41.


Molodin, V. I., N. V. Polos’mak, A. V. Novikov, E. S. Bogdanov, I. IU. Sliusarenko, and D. V. Cheremisin. 2004.

Arkheologicheskie pamiatniki ploskogor’ya Ukok (Gornye Altai) (Archaeological monuments from the Ukok Plateau).
Novosibirsk: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography.


Novgorodova, E. A. 1984.

Mir petroglifov Mongolii (Mongolian petroglyphs). Moscow: Nauka.


Novgorodova, E. A. 1981.

Petroglify Mongolii (Petroglyphs from Mongolia). Leningrad: Nauka.


Parzinger, Hermann. 2006.

Die Frühen Völker Eurasiens. Munich: C. H. Beck.


Polosmak, N. V. 2001.

Vsadniki Ukoka (Horsemen of the Ukok Plateau). Novosibirsk: INFOLIO-Press.


Potanin, G. N. [1881] 1948.

Putoshestviia po Mongolii (Travels in Mongolia). Reprint of original Rezul’taty puteshestviia ispolnennogo v 1876–1877 godakh,
edited by V. A. Obruchev. Moscow: State Geographical Literature Press.


Rudenko, S.I. 1960.

Kul’tura naseleniia tsentral’nogo Altaia v skifskoe vremia (Culture in central Altai in the Scythican period). Moscow-Leningrad: Academy of Sciences.


Rudenko, S.I. [Sergei I]. 1970.

Frozen Tombs of Siberia. Translated by M. W. Thompson. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.


Sapozhnikov, V. V. 1949

Po Russkomy i Mongol’skomu Altayu (Travels in Russian and Mongolian Altai), edited by V. V. Obruchev. Moscow: State Geographical Literature Press.


Sauer, Carl. 1925.

The Morphology of Landscape. In University of California Publications in Geography 22: 19-53.


Savinov. D. G. 1984.

Narody iuzhnoi Sibiri v drevne-tiurkskuiu epokhu (People of South Siberia in the ancient Turkic Period). Leningrad: Leningrad University Press.


Savinov. D. G. 1994.

Olennye kamni v kul’ture kochevnikov Evrazii (Deer stones within the culture of Eurasian horsemen). St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Press.


Shahgedanova, Maria, ed. 2002.

The Physical Geography of Northern Eurasia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Sinor, Denis. 1990.

The establishment and dissolution of the Türk empire. In The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, edited by Denis Sinor, 285–316.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Soucek, Svat. 2002.
A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Tarasov, P., N. Dorofeyuk, and E. Metel’tseva. 2000.

Holocene vegetation and climate changes in Hoton-Nur basin, northwest Mongolia. Boreas 29: 117–126.


Tseveendorj, D., E. Jacobson, and V. D. Kubarev. 1997.

Newly Recorded Petroglyphic Complexes in the Altay Mountains, Bayan Olgiy Aimag, Mongolia. International Newsletter on Rock Art 17: 1–6.


Tseveendorj, D., V. D. Kubarev, E. Yakobson [Jacobson]. 2005.

Aral Tolgoin xadny zurag (Petroglyphs of Aral Tolgoi). Ulaanbaatar: Institute of Archaeology.


UNESCO. World Heritage Centre. 2008.

Preservation of the Frozen Tombs of the Altai Mountains. Paris: UNESCO/Flanders Funds in Trust.


UNESCO World Heritage Centre: Cultural Landscape

http://whc.unesco.org/en/culturallandscape/#1. April 2009.


United States Board on Geographic Names. 1988

Gazetteer of Mongolia. Washington, D.C.: Defense Mapping Agency.


V. V. Volkov. 1967.

Bronzovyi i rannyi zheleznyi vek Mongolii (Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Mongolia). Studia Archaeologica Instituti Historiae Academiae
Scientiarium Republicae Populi Mongoli V (1). Ulaanbaatar: Academy of Sciences.


Volkov, V. V. 1981.

Olennye kamni Mongolii (Deer stones of Mongolia). Ulan-Bator: Institute of History.


Wang Lin-shan, and Wang Bo. 1996.

China’s Cultural Relics of Grassland in Altay. Xinjiang, China: Altay Museum.


Wright, Joshua. 2007.

Organizational principles of Khirigsuur monuments in the lower Egiin Gol valley, Mongolia.
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26: 350–365.


* For an expanded bibliography, see the related publication, Archaeology and Landscape in the Mongolian Altai: an Atlas (ESRI Press, 2009).